An ICT-Based Extension Services’ Adoption Model for Public Extension Officers: A Case in Mali

Macire Kante


The realization of higher yield and therefore agricultural productivity cannot be achieved without information. That information is disseminated in developing countries, particularly Mali by government-led extension services. However, there are few (public) extension officers to disseminate that information. That makes the use of other means such as ICT one of the best way to disseminate the extension services. This paper, firstly, looked at the drivers and challenges of the adoption of ICT based extension services by public extension officers in Mali from the literature to propose a conceptual framework. Secondly, the study assessed the survey questionnaire and thirdly, evaluated the proposed model. A sequential exploratory research design was followed. It consisted of conducting indept-interviews with 12 key stakeholders (agricultural scientist, policymakers, IT professional and head of extension services) in Bamako and Koulikoro. These data were analysed using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (RQDA) to contextualise the proposed conceptual framework. Thereafter, a survey questionnaire was designed and administered to 21 public extension officers in in Bamako, Kati and Koulikoro. Quantitative Data was analysed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling with the aid of the software Smartpls 3.2.8. This study validated a questionnaire of 19 items out of 26 for the next phase of the study with more respondents. Additionnaly, the results revealed that Relative Advantage, High Cost, Compatibility, Complexity, ICT-Skills and Policy explained 48.4% of the variance of the adoption of ICT based extension services by public extension officers.


Agricultural extension, Productivity, ICT, adoption, Mali, Developing Countries

Full Text:



Adegbidi, A., Mensah, R., Vidogbena, F., & Agossou, D. (2012). Determinants of ICT use by rice farmers in Benin : from the perception of ICT characteristics to the adoption of the technology. Journal of Research in International Business and Management, 2(11), 273–284.

Agunga, R., & Putra, R. A. R. S. (2015). Training Needs of Indonesian Agricultural Extension Workers for the 21st Century: A Recommendation Based on a Field Study. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, (1362-2017–764).

Aker, J. C., Ghosh, I., & Burrell, J. (2016). The promise (and pitfalls) of ICT for agriculture initiatives. Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom), 47, 35–48.

Akintunde, M. A. O., & Oladele, O. I. (2019). Use of Information Communication Technologies among Agricultural Extension Officers in Lesotho. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 23(3), 50–65.

Akpabio, I. A., Okon, D. P., & Inyang, E. B. (2007). Constraints Affecting ICT Utilization by Agricultural Extension Officers in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 13(4), 263–272.

Atkinson, N. L., Massett, H. A., Mylks, C., Hanna, B., Deering, M. J., & Hesse, B. W. (2007). User-Centered Research on Breast Cancer Patient Needs and Preferences of an Internet-Based Clinical Trial Matching System. J Med Internet Res.

Barney, J. B., Jr., D. J. K., & Wright, M. (2011). The Future of Resource-Based Theory : Revitalization or Decline ? Journal of Management, 37(5), 1299–1315.

Bertolini, R. (2004). Making Information and Communication Technologies AFRICA. In Assuring Food and Nutrition Security in Africa by 2020: Prioritizing Actions, Strengthening Actors, and Facilitating Partnerships (pp. 1–6). Kampala: IFPRI. Retrieved from

Bridoux, F. (2003). A RESOURCE-BASED APPROACH TO PERFORMANCE AND COMPETITION : An Overview of the Connections between Resources and Competition. Louvain.

Carter, L., & Belanger, F. (2004). Citizen adoption of electronic government initiatives. In System Sciences (Vol. 00, p. 10 pp.). Hawaii International: IEEE.

DNA. (2012). Ministère de l ’ Agriculture République du Mali RAPPORT BILAN ANNUEL DES ACTIVITES 2011. Bamako. Retrieved from

Garson, G. D. (2016a). Partial Least Squares: Regression & Structural Equation Models (2016 Editi). Asheboro: Statistical Associates Publishing.

Garson, G. D. (2016b). PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES (PLS-SEM) 2016 Edition.

GSMA. Case study: Orange Senekela, Mali (2015).

Harindranath, G., & Berna, G. Challenges of ICT Adoption by South African SMEs : A study of Manufacturing and Logistics Firms, Royal University of London 1–23 (2009).

Haug, R., & Tumbo, S. (2016). Mobile learning bridging the gap in agricultural extension service delivery: Experiences from Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania Camilius Sanga and Malongo Mlozi Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 12(3), 108–127.

Heeks, R. (2018). Information and Communication for Development (ICT4D) (first edit). Routledge.



John Hulland. (1999). Use of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in Strategic Management Research: A Review of Four Recent Studies on JSTOR. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195–204.

Kante, M., Chepken, C., & Oboko, R. (2017). Revisitant les facteurs affectant l’utilisation des Tics sur l’information relative aux intrants agricoles par les paysans dans les pays en voie de développement. Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management, 14(2), 169–189.

Kante, M., Chepken, C., & Oboko, R. (2018). Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling’ use in Information Systems: An Updated Guideline of Practices in Exploratory Settings. Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation, 6(1), 49–67. Retrieved from

Kante, M., Oboko, R., & Chepken, C. (2016). Factors affecting the use of ICTs on agricultural input information by farmers in developing countries. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 1(3), 315–329.

Kante, M., Oboko, R., & Chepken, C. (2017). Influence of perception and quality of ICT-based agricultural input information on use of ICTs by farmers in developing countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 83(1), 1–21.


Kante, M., Oboko, R., & Chepken, C. (2019). An ICT model for increased adoption of farm input information in developing countries: A case in Sikasso, Mali. Information Processing in Agriculture, 6(1), 26–46.

Karubanga, G., Kibwika, P., Okry, F., & Sseguya, H. (2016). Empowering farmers to learn and innovate through integration of video-mediated and face-to-face extension approaches: The case of rice farmers in Uganda. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1).

Karuri, J. W. (2015). Determinants of Acceptance and Use of Routine HIS in Developing Countries : The Case of DHIS2 in Kenya. University of Nairobi.

Lim, S., Saldanha, T., Malladi, S., & Melville, N. P. (2009). Theories Used in Information Systems Research : Identifying Theory Networks in Leading IS Journals. In ICIS (Ed.), International Conference on Information Systems (p. 10). AISel. Retrieved from

Lwoga, E T, Stilwell, C., & Ngulube, P. (2011). Access and use of agricultural information and knowledge in Tanzania. Library Review, 60(5), 383–395.

Lwoga, Edda Tandi. (2010). Bridging the agricultural knowledge and information divide: the case of selected telecenters and rural radio in Tanzania. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 43(6), 1–14.

Mabe, L. K., & Oladele, I. (2015). E-Readiness Among Male and Female Extension Officers in North-West Province, South Africa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Information, 16(4), 315–325.

Müller-Bloch, C., & Kranz, J. (2015). A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews. In Thirty Sixth International Conference on Information Systems (pp. 1–19). ICIS.

Munyua, H., Adera, E., & Jensen, M. (2009). Emerging ICTs and Their Potential in Revitalizing Small-Scale Agriculture in Africa. In IAAALD/AFITA/WCCA (Ed.), Agricultural Information Worldwide (pp. 3–9). Tokyo.

Nenkari, H. (2011). Extension Services through Mobile Telephony and Internet in Kenya. In Extension Services through Mobile telephony and internet in Kenya. Nairobi.

Ochilo, W. N., Ruffhead, H., Rumsey, A., Chege, F., Lusweti, C., Oronje, M., & Otieno, W. (2019). Can You Ensure that ICT for Development Apps Are Downloaded and Used? A Case Study of the Plantwise Data Collection App for Plant Health in Kenya. Journal of Agricultural and Food Information, 20(3), 237–253.

Palmer, T. (2014). mAgri Rapport initial sur Orange. London. Retrieved from

Rezaei-Moghaddam, K., & Salehi, S. (2010). Agricultural specialists’ intention toward precision agriculture technologies: Integrating innovation characteristics to technology acceptance model. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(March), 1191–1199.

Rogers, E. M. (1983). DIFFUSION OF Third Edition (Third Edit). New York: Macmillan Publishing.

Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. Macmillian Publishing Co.

Sanga, C. ., Kalungwizi, V. J. ;, & Msuya, C. P. (2013). Building an agricultural extension services system supported by ICTs in Tanzania : Progress made , Challenges remain. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 9(1), 80–99.

Sarstedt, M., & Cheah, J. H. (2019). Partial least squares structural equation modeling using SmartPLS: a software review. Journal of Marketing Analytics, 7(3), 196–202.

Siyao, P. O. (2012a). Barriers in accessing Agricultural Information in Tanzania With a Gender Perspective : the Case study of small-scale sugar Cane growers in Kilombero District. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 51(6), 1–19.

Siyao, P. O. (2012b). Barriers in Accessing Agricultural Information in Tanzania with a Gender Perspective: The Case Study of Small-Scale Sugar Cane Growers in Kilombero District. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 51(1), 1–19.

Sylla, A. Y., Mahama Al-Hassan, R., Egyir, I. S., & Anim-Somuah, H. (2019). Perceptions about quality of public and private agricultural extension in Africa: Evidence from farmers in Burkina Faso. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5(1), 1–14.

Wright, H. J., Ochilo, W., Pearson, A., Finegold, C., Oronje, M. L., Wanjohi, J., … Rumsey, A. (2016). Using ICT to Strengthen Agricultural Extension Systems for Plant Health. Journal of Agricultural and Food Information, 17(1), 23–36.

Zewge, A., & Dittrich, Y. (2017). SYSTEMATIC MAPPING STUDY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE (THE CASE OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES). Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 82(2), 1–25. Retrieved from

Zhang, Y., Wang, L., & Duan, Y. (2016). Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China. Information Processing in Agriculture, 3(1), 17–29.

Zoundji, G. C., Okry, F., Vodouhê, S. D., & Bentley, J. W. (2016). The distribution of farmer learning videos: Lessons from non-conventional dissemination networks in Benin. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), 1–15.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management

Licensed under